ESP.ORG » Timelines » Evolutionary Biology vs All Other Categories (1800-1809)

Last Updated: 10 Jun 2015

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Evolutionary Biology arrow arrow arrow arrow All Other Categories

First performance of Ludwig von Beethoven's 1st Symphony in C.

image Between 1800 and 1803, naturalist Alexander von Humboldt visits Mexico and writes influential accounts of his observations.

image Karl Friedrich Burdach coins the term BIOLOGY to denote the study of human morphology, physiology and psychology.

image Alessandro Volta announces his invention, made in 1799, of the electric battery, also known as the Voltaic pile. It consists of a stack of alternating zinc and silver discs separated by felt soaked in brine. It is the first source of a steady electric current.

image William Herschel's "An investigation of the powers of prismatic colors to heat and illuminate objects" tells of his discovery of infrared radiation. While investigating the power of different parts of the spectrum to heat a thermometer, he finds that invisible light beyond the red produces the most heat.

image Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Système de Animaux sans Vertèbres (System for Animals without Vertebrae) includes a classification system for invertebrates and a preliminary view of his ideas of evolution.


image Thomas Jefferson becomes the third president of the United States.

Ireland and Great Britain, England and Scotland, form United Kingdom.

image Giuseppe Piazzi discovers first asteroid, which is later named Ceres.


The Ohio Constitution outlaws slavery. It also prohibits free blacks from voting.

image image Gottfried Treviranus and Jean Baptiste de Lamarck independently broaden the meaning of BIOLOGY to include the study of all living things.

image Considered the father of modern scientific education in America, Benjamin Silliman, Sr., teaches the first modern science course (chemistry at Yale) in the United States. Silliman later becomes a founder in 1818 of the American Journal of Science, one of the oldest scientific journals in the world.

image Thomas Young's On the theory of light and colors is the first of three pivotal papers describing his wave theory of light.


image US buys large tract of land from France — The Louisiana Purchase.


image image Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin their exploration of the Louisiana territory.

Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure's Recherches chimiques sur la végétation "Chemical researches on vegetation" shows that plants require carbon dioxide from the air and nitrogen from the soil. Earlier researchers had assumed the plants got carbon from the soil instead of from the air.

John Leslie's An experimental inquiry into the nature and propagation of heat establishes that the transmission of heat through radiation has the same properties as the propagation of light.


image Britain's Lord Nelson defeats the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. Lord Nelson is killed, but his victory ends Napoleons power at sea and makes a French invasion of Britain impossible.

image The field of comparative anatomy begins, with the publications of Baron Georges Cuvier's Lesson in Comparative Anatomy

image Pierre-Simon Laplace measures molecular forces in liquids and announces his theory of capillary forces.


England abolishes the importation of enslaved Africans into its colonial possessions.

image Robert Fulton develops the first practical steamboat, the Clermont, which sails from New York City to Albany and back.

image Thomas Young introduces the concept of, and is the first to use, the word ENERGY.


The US prohibits the importation of new slaves from Africa (but the holding of existing slaves and their descendents remains legal).

image Étienne-Louis Malus discovers that reflected light is polarized and introduces the term POLARIZATION.

image 12 Feb 1809

Charles Darwin is born

image Jean Baptiste de Lamarck's theory of evolution presented with the publication of his Philosophie Zoologique, which emphasized the fundamental unity of life and the capacity of species to vary.


image 12 Feb 1809

Abraham Lincoln is born

image James Madison becomes the fourth president of the United States.

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